The roof of 22 Gia Long Street, not the U.S. Embassy
Thirty Years at 300 Millimeters
By HUBERT VAN ES ..April 29, 2005
HONG KONG--Thirty years ago I was fortunate enough to take a photograph that has become perhaps the most recognizable image of the fall of Saigon - you know it, the one that is always described as showing an American helicopter evacuating people from the roof of the United States Embassy. Well, like so many things about the Vietnam War, it's not exactly what it seems. In fact, the photo is not of the embassy at all; the helicopter was actually on the roof of an apartment building in downtown Saigon where senior Central Intelligence Agency employees were housed.
It was Tuesday, April 29, 1975. Rumors about the final evacuation of Saigon had been rife for weeks, with thousands of people - American civilians, Vietnamese citizens and third-country nationals - being loaded on transport planes at Tan Son Nhut air base, to be flown to United States bases on Guam, Okinawa and elsewhere. Everybody knew that the city was surrounded by the North Vietnamese, and that it was only a matter of time before they would take it. Around 11 a.m. the call came from Brian Ellis, the bureau chief of CBS News, who was in charge of coordinating the evacuation of the foreign press corps. It was on!
The assembly point was on Gia Long Street, opposite the Grall Hospital, where buses would pick up those wanting to leave. The evacuation was supposed to have been announced by a "secret" code on Armed Forces Radio: the comment that "the temperature is 105 degrees and rising," followed by eight bars of "White Christmas." Don't even ask what idiot dreamed this up. There were no secrets in Saigon in those days, and every Vietnamese and his dog knew the code. In the end, I think, they scrapped the idea. I certainly have no recollection of hearing it.
The journalists who had decided to leave went to the assembly point, each carrying only a small carry-on bag, as instructed. But the Vietnamese seeing this exodus were quick to figure out what was happening, and dozens showed up to try to board the buses. It took quite a while for the vehicles to show - they were being driven by fully armed marines, who were not very familiar with Saigon streets - and then some scuffles broke out, as the marines had been told to let only the press on board. We did manage to sneak in some Vietnamese civilians, and the buses headed for the airport.
I wasn't on them. I had decided, along with several colleagues at United Press International, to stay as long as possible. As a Dutch citizen, I was probably taking less of a risk than the others. They included our bureau chief, Al Dawson; Paul Vogle, a terrific reporter who spoke fluent Vietnamese; Leon Daniel, an affable Southerner; and a freelancer working for U.P.I. named Chad Huntley. I was the only photographer left, but luckily we had a bunch of Vietnamese stringers, who kept bringing in pictures from all over the city. These guys were remarkable. They had turned down all offers to be evacuated and decided to see the end of the war that had overturned their lives.
On the way back from the evacuation point, where I had gotten some great shots of a marine confronting a Vietnamese mother and her little boy, I photographed many panicking Vietnamese in the streets burning papers that could identify them as having had ties to the United States. South Vietnamese soldiers were discarding their uniforms and weapons along the streets leading to the Saigon River, where they hoped to get on boats to the coast. I saw a group of young boys, barely in their teens, picking up M-16's abandoned on Tu Do Street. It's amazing I didn't see any accidental shootings.
Returning to the office, which was on the top floor of the rather grandly named Peninsula Hotel, I started processing, editing and printing my pictures from that morning, as well as the film from our stringers. Our regular darkroom technician had decided to return to the family farm in the countryside. Two more U.P.I. staffers, Bert Okuley and Ken Englade, were still at the bureau. They had decided to skip the morning evacuation and try their luck in the early evening at the United States Embassy, where big Chinook helicopters were lifting evacuees off the roof to waiting Navy ships off the coast. (Both made it out that evening.)
If you looked north from the office balcony, toward the cathedral, about four blocks from us, on the corner of Tu Do and Gia Long, you could see a building called the Pittman Apartments, where we knew the C.I.A. station chief and many of his officers lived. Several weeks earlier the roof of the elevator shaft had been reinforced with steel plate so that it would be able to take the weight of a helicopter. A makeshift wooden ladder now ran from the lower roof to the top of the shaft. Around 2:30 in the afternoon, while I was working in the darkroom, I suddenly heard Bert Okuley shout, "Van Es, get out here, there's a chopper on that roof!"
I grabbed my camera and the longest lens left in the office - it was only 300 millimeters, but it would have to do - and dashed to the balcony. Looking at the Pittman Apartments, I could see 20 or 30 people on the roof, climbing the ladder to an Air America Huey helicopter. At the top of the ladder stood an American in civilian clothes, pulling people up and shoving them inside.
Of course, there was no possibility that all the people on the roof could get into the helicopter, and it took off with 12 or 14 on board. (The recommended maximum for that model was eight.) Those left on the roof waited for hours, hoping for more helicopters to arrive. To no avail.
After shooting about 10 frames, I went back to the darkroom to process the film and get a print ready for the regular 5 p.m. transmission to Tokyo from Saigon's telegraph office. In those days, pictures were transmitted via radio signals, which at the receiving end were translated back into an image. A 5-inch-by-7-inch black-and-white print with a short caption took 12 minutes to send.
And this is where the confusion began. For the caption, I wrote very clearly that the helicopter was taking evacuees off the roof of a downtown Saigon building. Apparently, editors didn't read captions carefully in those days, and they just took it for granted that it was the embassy roof, since that was the main evacuation site. This mistake has been carried on in the form of incorrect captions for decades. My efforts to correct the misunderstanding were futile, and eventually I gave up. Thus one of the best-known images of the Vietnam War shows something other than what almost everyone thinks it does.
LATER that afternoon, five Vietnamese civilians came into my office looking distraught and afraid. They had been on the Pittman roof when the chopper had landed, but were unable to get a seat. They asked for our help in getting out; they had worked in the offices of the United States Agency for International Development, and were afraid that this connection might harm them when the city fell to the Communists.
One of them had a two-way radio that could connect to the embassy, and Chad Huntley managed to reach somebody there. He asked for a helicopter to land on the roof of our hotel to pick them up, but was told it was impossible. Al Dawson put them up for the night, because by then a curfew was in place; we heard sporadic shooting in the streets, as looters ransacked buildings evacuated by the Americans. All through the night the big Chinooks landed and took off from the embassy, each accompanied by two Cobra gunships in case they took ground fire.
After a restless night, our photo stringers started coming back with film they had shot during the late afternoon of the 29th and that morning - the 30th. Nguyen Van Tam, our radio-photo operator, went back and forth between our bureau and the telegraph office to send the pictures out to the world. I printed the last batch around 11 a.m. and put them in order of importance for him to transmit. The last was a shot of the six-story chancery, next to the embassy, burning after being looted during the night.
About 12:15 Mr. Tam called me and with a trembling voice told me that that North Vietnamese troops were downstairs at the radio office. I told him to keep transmitting until they pulled the plug, which they did some five minutes later. The last photo sent from Saigon showed the burning chancery at the top half of the picture; the lower half were lines of static.
The war was over.
I went out into the streets to photograph the self-proclaimed liberators. We had been assured by the North Vietnamese delegates, who had been giving Saturday morning briefings to the foreign press out at the airport, that their troops had been told to expect foreigners with cameras and not to harm them. But just to make sure they wouldn't take me for an American, I wore, on my camouflage hat, a small plastic Dutch flag printed with the words "Boa Chi Hoa Lan" ("Dutch Press"). The soldiers, most of them quite young, were remarkably friendly and happy to pose for pictures. It was a weird feeling to come face to face with the "enemy," and I imagine that was how they felt too.
I left Saigon on June 1, by plane for Vientiane, Laos, after having been "invited" by the new regime to leave, as were the majority of newspeople of all nationalities who had stayed behind to witness the fall of Saigon.
It was 15 years before I returned. My absence was not for a lack of desire, but for the repeated rejections of my visa applications by an official at the press department of the Foreign Ministry. It turned out that I had a history with this man; he had come to our office about a week after Saigon fell because, as the editor of one of North Vietnam's military publications, he wanted to print in his magazine some pictures we had of the "liberation." I showed him 52 images that we had been unable to send out since April 30, and said he could have them only if he used his influence to make it possible for us first to transmit them to the West. He said that was not possible, so I told him there was no deal.
He obviously had a long memory, and I assume it was only after he retired or died that my actions were forgiven and I was given a visa. I have since returned many times from my home in Hong Kong, including for the 20th and 25th anniversaries of the fall, at which many old Vietnam hands got together and reminisced about the "good old days." Now I am returning for the 30th anniversary reunion. It will be good to be with old comrades and, again, many a glass will be hoisted to the memories of departed friends - both the colleagues who made it out and the Vietnamese we left behind.
Hubert Van Es, a freelance photographer, covered the Vietnam War, the Moro Rebellion in the Philippines and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Getting it Wrong in a Photo
By Fox Butterfield with Karl Haskell , April 23, 2000
IT became the most remembered photograph of the fall of Saigon, capturing the last chaotic days of the Vietnam war, and most people believed that it showed desperate Americans crowding on to the roof of the United States Embassy to board a helicopter. That is what the picture caption usually says.
But as with much about the Vietnam war, the caption is wrong. The building is an apartment complex. The people fleeing are Vietnamese. The last helicopter left about 12 hours later.
In its way, the photograph is a metaphor for all the misunderstanding that plagued the Vietnam war. Americans, whether conservative or liberal, often imposed their own ideas on that troubling war, and that seems to be what happened with the picture, said Hubert Van Es, a United Press International photographer who took it 25 years ago, on April 29, 1975, from the roof of a hotel half a mile away.
"I put the correct caption on it," said Mr. Van Es, who now lives in Hong Kong, "but people back in the United States just took it for granted that it must be the embassy, because that was where they believed the evacuation took place."
The picture was of an apartment building for the employees of the United States Agency for International Development, its top floor reserved for the Central Intelligence Agency's deputy chief of station. The address was 22 Gia Long Street, about a half mile from the embassy. I lived around the corner as one of the last two correspondents of The New York Times remaining in Vietnam and left later that afternoon.
In the last days, as the embassy hastily prepared for the last stage of evacuation, 22 Gia Long was chosen as one of about a dozen possible gathering places for Americans. The secret signal for the start of the evacuation was a radio broadcast saying the temperature in Saigon was "105 degrees and rising," followed by the first 30 seconds of "White Christmas."
The United States ambassador to South Vietnam, Graham A. Martin, had delayed the final evacuation in the vain hope that President Gerald Ford and Congress would rescue the collapsing South Vietnamese army. Mr. Martin assumed that the United States Air Force could use Ton Son Nhut air base to lift out the last few thousand Americans. But the rapidly advancing North Vietnamese Army wrecked that idea, shelling the base on the morning of April 29 and shooting down some South Vietnamese Air Force planes trying to take off, their wreckage littering the runway.
The C.I.A. station chief, Thomas Polgar, had a problem. The night before, he had telephoned a group of senior South Vietnamese politicians, generals and police officers who had helped the agency, telling them to gather at his house with their families for evacuation. Among them was Tran Van Don, deputy prime minister and defense minister, and a general who was chief of military communications intelligence. But by late morning, the area was no longer secure, recalled Mr. Polgar, who is now 78.
Then Mr. Polgar had an inspiration. The elevator shaft on the roof of the apartment building at 22 Gia Long Street might support a landing in an emergency.
Mr. Polgar brought in a C.I.A. employee, O. B. Harnage, to direct the Vietnamese officials and their families to Gia Long Street and have them flown out by Air America, an airline owned by the C.I.A. for its operations in Southeast Asia.
When Mr. Harnage landed on the roof in a silver Huey helicopter, some people were panicking. Some junior officers and policemen had been allowed in on condition that they use their weapons to keep a crowd milling in the street outside from storming the building.
Stationing himself next to a ladder leading onto the roof, Mr. Harnage tried to help the Vietnamese families up. But the first man who appeared, Mr. Harnage recalled, was a Korean who was hysterical and Mr. Harnage punched him out of the way to maintain order. The Huey, the workhorse of the American effort in Vietnam, normally carried about eight passengers, but Mr. Harnage jammed in as many as 15 Vietnamese, and jumped on the helicopter's skid, standing in the open doorway as it flew to Tan Son Nhut on the edge of the city.
Mr. Harnage, who was later awarded a C.I.A. medal, made four or five of these flights to the air base, where larger Navy or Air Force helicopters ferried the families to ships waiting in the South China Sea. At a time when America abandoned many Vietnamese allies and South Vietnam's military and political leaders abandoned their own country, it was a heroic act.
But one mystery remains. Is it indeed Mr. Harnage in the photograph? He believes it is. The picture, which he saw a week later in a Manila newspaper, shows a man in a white shirt and dark pants, which Mr. Harnage was wearing that day. His wife also saw the photograph. "She said she recognized me from my backside," said Mr. Harnage, who is now 75. He recalled her saying she knew him "because I was always leaving" to go somewhere on another mission.
Others say they were the ones in the picture. Mr. Polgar said he's unsure who it is. "But if Harnage says he is the man in that picture, I'll take his word for it," he said.
Hugh Van Es, Photojournalist Who Covered Vietnam, Dies at 67
New York Times, May 16, 2009
By Keith Bradsher
HONG KONG Hubert Van Es, a Dutch photojournalist who covered the Vietnam War and took one of the best-known images of the American evacuation of Saigon in 1975 of people scaling a ladder to a helicopter on a rooftop died on Friday, May 15, 2009. He was 67.
The Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Hong Kong announced his death on behalf of his wife, Annie. Mr. Van Es fell into a coma a week ago when he suffered a brain aneurysm and died at Queen Mary Hospital.
Mr. Van Es was in the offices of United Press International on April 29, 1975, when he saw about 30 Americans on the rooftop of an apartment building several blocks away climbing a long ladder to board a Central Intelligence Agency helicopter.
Mr. Van Es took the photo using a long lens and sent it out over the U.P.I. service. The building housed CIA officials and families, but the photo has often been described incorrectly as showing people fleeing the American Embassy in Saigon. Thousands of people were evacuated by helicopter in the operation.
The photo, widely reprinted ever since, became one of the defining images of the war. Mr. Van Es had taken other memorable pictures of the war, like one of a wounded soldier, a small cross gleaming against his silhouette, from the battle of Hamburger Hill in May 1969. And he had already gained a reputation as one of the most fearless photojournalists in the war. But for the rest of his life he was known primarily for that image of the fall of Saigon.
“He was obviously a very good photographer, but what he did was to capture the end,” said Ernst Herb, the president of the correspondents’ club.
Born in Hilversum, the Netherlands, Hubert Van Es decided to become a photographer after seeing an exhibition of the work of the renowned war photographerRobert Capa. He arrived in Hong Kong as a freelancer in 1967, joined The South China Morning Post as chief photographer and initially went to Vietnam the following year after getting a job as a soundman for NBC News, according to The Associated Press. After a stint with NBC, he joined The A.P. photo staff in Saigon from 1969-72 and then covered the last three years of the war, from 1972-75, for U.P.I.
When he took the Saigon picture, Mr. Van Es was in the process of leaving U.P.I. to become a freelancer again. After the war, he resumed freelance work in Hong Kong. He also covered the Moro rebellion in the Philippines and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Mr. Van Es was dismayed that he did not receive royalties from the use of the Saigon photo, which belonged to the U.P.I. and has since been sold twice, along with many other photos taken by the wire service’s photographers. Bill Gates, c0-founder of Microsoft, now owns the rights to the photo through Corbis, a company he created.
Besides his wife, of 39 years, he is survived by a sister in Holland, The A.P. said.
A May 1969 photo showed a wounded United States paratrooper waiting for medical evacuation at base camp in the A Shau Valley near the Laos border in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Go to: Vietnam Medal of Honor Citations
© 2009 by Neil Mishalov
Updated 15 May 2009